On December 12, 1531, an image of Our Lady of Guadalupe appeared on the tilma of native Aztec, Juan Diego. Since then, scientists have struggled to explain just how the image got there.

The image itself has many extraordinary attributes that border on the miraculous (and probably indicate it!). In the 20th and 21st centuries, six attributes in particular have been scientifically examined.

1.The material of the tilma

The material of the tilma has maintained its chemical and structural integrity for almost 500 years. This is quite remarkable considering that most replicas of tilmas with the same chemical and structural composition last only 15 years before analyzable decomposition.

2. How the tilma was displayed

For its first 115 years, the tilma was displayed without protective glass and subjected to soot, candle wax, incense, and touching. There is currently no scientific explanation for its physical and chemical longevity.

3. Does not appear to be painted

Though there are several parts of the cloth which have been painted subsequent to the original image (e.g. the moon underneath the Virgin’s feet, the angel holding the cloth, and the rays coming from the image), the original image of the Virgin herself does not appear to have been painted by an artist.

There is no sketch underneath it, no brush strokes, no corrections, and it appears to have been produced in a single step. These features were identified by Dr. Philip Serna Callahan (biophysicist and NASA consultant) who photographed the image under infrared light.

4. The pigments used are unidentifiable

Nobel Prize winning biochemist, Richard Kuhn, analyzed a sample of the fabric and concluded that the pigments used were from no known natural source, whether animal, mineral, or vegetable. Given that there were no synthetic pigments in 1531, this enigma remains inexplicable.

5. The Lack of Decay

Dr. Philip Callahan also noted that the original image on the tilma had not cracked, flaked, or decayed in over 500 years, while the paint and gold leaf had flaked or deteriorated considerably. This phenomenon has still not yet been scientifically explained.

6. The Eyes on the Image

The eyes of the Virgin have three remarkable qualities that cannot be explained through known technology in 1531—and each would be difficult to replicate with today’s technology of computers, ophthalmologic knowledge, and digital photography:

  • Engineer, Jose Aste Tonsmann, has amplified an image of the pupils of the Blessed Virgin by 2500 times and can identify not only what appears to be the image of Bishop Zumarraga, but also several other witnesses of the miracle reflected there.
  • The images in the pupils also manifest the triple reflection called the Samson-Purkinje effect—which was completely unknown at the time of the image’s formation.
  • The image in the eyes of the Virgin follow the curvature of the cornea precisely in the way it occurs in a normal human eye.

A remarkable source of conversion

Displayed in the Cathedral atop Tepeyac Hill in Mexico, the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe on Juan Diego’s tilma has been a remarkable source of conversion to Catholicism throughout Mexico.

It has also been a source of strength and grace for the Catholic religion as a whole, particularly in times of persecution and secularism. The message of Our Lady to Juan Diego—filled with love and affection for the native people of the western hemisphere—has inspired tens of thousands of people. So far has her message reached, that she is now considered the patroness of all the Americas.

The influence of this single devotion has been so great that, upon seeing the image for the first time in 1754, Pope Benedict XIV wept and uttered the words of Psalm 147, “God has not dealt in like manner with any other nation.”

For Sources and to read more on our Lady of Guadalupe view Fr. Spitzer’s article, Contemporary, Scientifically Validated Miracles Associated with the Blessed Mary, Saints, and the Holy Eucharist.  

Image credit: Wikimedia Commons / Nicolás Enríquez

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